Which is the safer method to define string constants

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These are all examples of (compile time) constant expressions. The bytecode compiler (e.g. javac) will perform the concatenations so that there is a single string in the constant pool in the compiled “.class” file for the value assigned to sample1 and sample2. And the value of sample3 is also a compile time constant … since it is the concatenation of two other compile-time constant variables. The rules that determine what is or is not a constant expression are lengthy (JLS 15.28 and 4.12.4), but: string literals are, final variables of type String are, provided that they are initialized to a… Read more »


There is no difference. static variables are initialized whenever the class is first encountered. From a memory perspective, all 3 are equal since they load the same String into memory. The first option should be preferred simply because it is more readable.